CMPS 002 - Computer Literacy

Prof. Paulo Franca

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Chapter 2 - Hardware Basics: Inside the Box

  • Wozniak, Jobs and the Garage that Grew Apples
    • First ready-to-use personal computer - Apple I
    • Why would people want those?
    • Big manufacturers like IBM neglected this market
    • Late, IBM saw the light, launched the IBM-PC
    • Apple, inspired by Xerox revolutionized the market with MacIntosh
    • Anyone makes "IBM" machines, only Apple makes "Apples"
  • What Computers Do
    • Receive input
    • Process information
    • Store information
    • Produces Output
  • A Bit about Bits
    • Bit Basics
    • How it Works: Binary Numbers
    • Imagine writing numbers only with 0's and 1's:
      • 0
      • 1
      • 10
      • 11
      • 100
      • 101
      • 110
      • 111
    • Your times tables? Piece of cake!
      • Addition: 0+0=0, 0+1=1, 1+0=1, 1+1=0 and carry
      • Multiplication: 0x0=0, 0x1=0, 1x0=0, 1x1= 1
    • Building with Bits
      • Use a group of 8 bits (byte) for each code
      • 256 different codes are possible (ASCII)
        • A 01000001
        • B 01000010
        • C 01000011
    • Bits, Bytes and Buzzwords
      • UNICODE a code using 16 bits (up to 65,000 codes possible)
      • Supports characters not in the Latin alphabet
    • How it Works: Representing the World's Languages
  • The Computer's Core: CPU and Memory
    • The CPU - The Real Computer
    • Working Wisdom: Green Computing
    • How it Works: The CPU
    • compatibility
    • performance
      • Clock speed (GigaHertz)
      • Architecture
      • Word Size
      • MultiCore processors
      • Multiprocessors, Clusters and Blades
    • The Computer's Memory
      • RAM, ROM
      • Access times (nanoseconds)
      • Capacity KB,MB,GB
    • How it Works: Memory
    • Buses, Ports and Peripherals
  • Inventing the Future: Tomorrow's Processors
    • 1946 "Only 6 computers will ever be sold"
    • IBM (1950's) Computer will not affect the market of tabulating machines
    • Microcomputers Invented (1970's)
    • Intel - the way to make money with microcomputers is to have them embedded as control mechanisms like in cars, etc.
    • Who will buy microcomputers?
    • Why would I use Internet?
    • Should I really have email?
    • The fact is... no one could predict the next wave where computers would affect our lives.